V2G, "vehicle to grid", is a smart charging technology for EVs.

V2G, Smart Charging Technology For EVs


The vigorous promotion of electric vehicles has a great contribution in reducing air pollution and slowing down global warming, but the uncontrolled charging of most electric vehicles will also bring challenges to power generation, transmission and distribution systems. However, at the same time, electric vehicles can help solve the above problems, which is the significance of the existence of V2G, a smart charging technology for electric vehicles.

What Is V2G?

V2G, “vehicle to grid”, is the reverse transmission of electricity from electric vehicle battery to the grid, so that electric vehicles and the grid can charge each other in both directions to replenish energy.


In short, V2G technology treats the new energy electric vehicle as a movable power bank, which can do the function of charging and discharging. When the grid peak demand, electric vehicles with V2G technology can release the battery power to the grid, and when the grid low peak demand, electric vehicles with V2G technology can store energy by plugging in the charging gun.

V2G technology treats the new energy electric vehicle as a movable power bank, which can do the function of charging and discharging.

What Is V2B, V2H, V2I, V2P, V2V, V2X?

In addition to V2G, we will also see acronyms like V2B, V2H, V2I terms that specifically refer to the connection of the vehicle to specific external information.


V2B: Vehicle to Building/Business, communication between the vehicle and other buildings or business workplaces;


V2H: Vehicle to Home, communication between the vehicle and electrical devices in the home;


V2I: Vehicle to Infrastructure, communication between the vehicle and the infrastructure around the road;


V2P: Vehicle to Pedestrian, communication between vehicles and pedestrians;


V2V: Vehicle to Vehicle, communication between vehicles and vehicles;


V2X: Vehicle to Everything, a generic term for communication between vehicles and houses, other buildings, workplaces, etc. The V2X concept was first developed to solve the safety problem of driving, and after decades of development, its goal is to achieve driverlessness.

In addition to V2G, we will also see acronyms like V2B, V2H, V2I terms that specifically refer to the connection of the vehicle to specific external information.

Conditions For The Realization Of V2G Technology

Currently, most of the electric vehicles on the market are conventional smart charging, also known as V1G charging. It can control the increase or decrease of charging power of EVs, which is a one-way charging process from charger to EV battery, while EVs with V2G technology can discharge in addition to charging. It enables the charged power to be pushed back to the grid from the car battery. There are currently 107 V2G projects in 25 different countries. Then, the following conditions need to be met to implement V2G technology.

Bi-directional Chargers

The EV charger needs to be bi-directional, a charger that can charge the EV and discharge the EV.

Bi-directional Chargers and V2G-enabled vehicles are the conditions for the realization of V2G technology.

V2G-enabled Vehicles

There is no doubt that vehicles that can support V2G technology are needed, and there are only a few on the market that can do so, such as the Ford F-150 Lightning, Nissan LEAF, Nissan e-NV200 and Mitsubishi Outlander.

Standard Protocols For Car-Charger Communication

Currently, of the four communication standard protocols used for DC charging, GB/T (China), CCS (US and EU), ChaDeMo (Japan) and Tesla (worldwide), only the ChaDeMo protocol supports V2G. In the future, CharIN, the organization promoting CCS technology, has indicated that CCS will support V2G by 2025.

Management System

V2G requires a management system to manage the process of energy output, and OCPP allows for better management of communication charging stations and charging station management systems, which will be implemented in the future for version support issues.

Advantages of V2G Technology

“High supply and low storage”: supplying electricity to the grid during peak grid load hours and storing electricity on its own during low grid load hours, reducing the pressure on electricity consumption due to the massive development of electric vehicles;


Vehicle owners can receive compensating benefits from electricity prices while providing electricity to the grid;


Promoting automakers to produce vehicles that support V2G technology;

Serving as backup energy storage when wind and solar power are not enough to supply;


Prompting network operators to optimize their investments and stabilize the grid.

There are opposites to everything, and V2G technology also has advantages and disadvantages.

Problems of V2G Technology

As the power source of electric vehicles, frequent charging and discharging will definitely increase wear and tear, which is a concern for many car owners;


The need for greater effort to plan the construction of supporting infrastructure;


The grid structure has to be re-planned, which is a big project.

Future prospects of V2G Development

The concept of V2G was introduced a long time ago and the technology is still in the early stages of development. With the increase of electric vehicles, the use of V2G technology can ease the pressure on the grid, but there are some problems that need to be solved.


In the long run, it is feasible to intelligently combine electric vehicles with the grid and use the energy storage system of electric vehicles to supply power to the grid, and it is believed that V2G technology will become more and more perfect in the future.

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